Race Day Nutrition (Part Six) – Marc Laithwaite

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Having discussed carbohydrate, fluid and salt intake, I thought it would be prudent to focus a little more on application. We’ll take a look at the specific products used during endurance events and whether they can fulfil your requirements in terms of nutrition intake.

There are 3 common sports products used during endurance racing:

  1. Drinks powders
  2. Gels
  3. Bars

Aside from the ‘big 3’ there is also a selection of jelly shots or chews, in addition to traditional favourites such as jelly babies, malt loaf, flapjack and bananas. For the purpose of this blog, we’re going to focus on the big 3 and examine what they provide and what’s the difference between them?

Energy Drinks

Energy drinks generally come in powder form and you mix with water to create a solution. In past blogs we’ve discussed the isotonic issue and how it impacts upon digestion. Based upon that, a 10% solution or less is ideal (7% is isotonic). To create a 10% solution, mix 60g of powder in 600ml of water.

What’s in the powder?

Almost all energy powders are maltodextrin, this is a ‘glucose polymer’ and made up of between 3-17 pieces of glucose in a chain. It is very rapidly absorbed (almost as quickly as pure glucose) and therefore gives a rapid sugar spike and insulin response (good if you need it during racing, but not good if you don’t need it, such as steady training or just using during the day as part of your diet). All energy drinks tend to be based on maltodextrin, but they often have small amounts of glucose and fructose.

Electrolytes

We discussed sweating and hydration last week, which included salt intake. You can go back and read in full if you wish, but as a recap, salt and sodium are 2 different things. Salt is 40% sodium and 60% chloride. You need to know this as some products give ‘salt’ content and others give ‘sodium’ content. Remember also from last week we said that you are likely to sweat up to 1g of sodium per hour (1000mg). There’s multiple thoughts on salt replacement, regarding how much and whether you need it. I’m not going to go into depth on the matter because this is meant to be a simple and easy to read blog. If it’s warm and you sweat a fair bit, aim for 500-1000mg SODIUM per hour. If you take a bit too much, you’ll just sweat it out anyhow so don’t overly panic.

Let’s presume that you are aiming to take all of your energy by using sports drinks. So remember, our targets are 60g of carbohydrate per hour and 500-1000mg of sodium per hour, presuming its warm and you sweat. Here are some options:


SIS GO Electrolyte 60 grams of powder

Includes 55 grams of carbohydrate, primarily maltodextrin

360mg sodium

 

Powerbar Iso Active 60 grams of powder

53 grams of carbohydrate, primarily maltodextrin

756mg sodium

 

H5 Energy Source 60 grams of powder

57g of carbohydrate, includes maltodextrin, but 33% fructose

312mg sodium

 

H5 Energy Source Xtrem 60 grams of powder

57g of carbohydrate 33% fructose

306mg sodium

Approx. 175mg caffeine

 

Some key points:

  1. We said your target is 60g of carbohydrate, not 60g of powder, but as you can see above, 95% of the powder which goes into your bottle, is actual carbohydrate.
  1. The sodium levels vary quite widely, you can see that Powerbar Iso Active has considerably more than others (756mg) and is the only one to fall within the 500-100mg range.
  1. H5 Energy Source is the only one which uses fructose in large quantities. They use a 2:1 formula (66% maltodextrin and 33% fructose). The reason for this is that the 60g per hour rule is based on the fact that only 60g of GLUCOSE can be absorbed per hour (maltodextrin is a glucose chain). However, that doesn’t account for fructose, which is absorbed in a different manner. So basically, if you take 90g of powder per hour, that contains 60g glucose (the maximum amount of glucose you can absorb) and 30g fructose which is absorbed separately. You can use this drink to take on more carbohydrate per hour than the normal guidelines.
  1. H5 Extrem also has caffeine, approx 175mg per 60g powder. To put that into perspective a pro-plus tablet has 50mg and a filter coffee has between 50-100mg per cup. People think caffeine is a ‘pick up’ or ‘kick’, when in fact it’s real purpose is a pain killer. Caffeine can mask your effort if taken in significant quantities, it changes your perception by acting on the nervous system to make things feel easier.


What about electrolyte tablets?


H5 Zero Tabs 4g tablet

260mg sodium

Power Bar 4g tablet

250mg sodium


Some key points:

The electrolyte tablets don’t contain any energy, they are purely flavoured salt replacement. If you’re drinking a bottle every hour in warm weather and sweating, then you probably need to double them in the bottle. If you’re using energy gels and bars to get your ‘energy’ during your event, you could use the electrolyte tablets to reach your sodium target. You can generally always get water during a race, so add 2 tabs to each bottle and drinks throughout the hour in addition to taking your gels and or bars.

I hope that basic overview of drinks helps you to practically apply what you’ve learned over recent weeks, feel free to call into the store and we can talk you through it before your big day.

Next week we’ll look at energy bars and gels, which one’s to choose to best suit your needs, that’s part 7, honestly the end is in sight.

– Marc

About Marc:

Sports Science lecturer for 10 years at St Helens HE College.

2004 established The Endurance Coach LTD sports science and coaching business. Worked with British Cycling as physiology support 2008-2008. Previous Triathlon England Regional Academy Head Coach, North West.

In 2006 established Epic Events Management LTD. Now one of the largest event companies in the NW, organising a range of triathlon, swimming and cycling events. EPIC EVENTS also encompasses Montane Trail 26 and Petzl Night Runner events.

In 2010 established Montane Lakeland 50 & 100 LTD. This has now become the UKs leading ultra distance trail running event.

In 2010 established The Endurance Store triathlon, trail running and open water swimming store. Based in Appley Bridge, Wigan, we are the North West’s community store, organising and supporting local athletes and local events.

Check out the endurance store HERE

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4 thoughts on “Race Day Nutrition (Part Six) – Marc Laithwaite

  1. As questioned through facebook already, why does the mineral issue only concern sodium (taken in as salt)? Aren’t other minerals vital too, potassium, calcium, magnesium, etc…, and don’t we sweat them just like the sodium? Wouldn’t it be important to have an idea of the needed quantities in race nutrition too?

    • To some extent, yes, there are other things which are important, but the key with race nutrition is to target the things which will have the biggest impact upon your performance and we lose sodium in greater quantities. Sports nutrition has a habit of becoming over complicated, at which point most people lose interest and fail to apply the most basic principles. For that reason, when giving advice, I’d focus on carbohydrates, fluid and sodium as it’s simple for most to follow and will give the biggest return on race day. – Marc

      • OK, thanks. I said this because I’m sweating a lot and have had trouble in ultras. Getting a serum at the finish line of Transvulcania I was told my problem was loss of total blood volume and potassium. I’m now using salt pills of Victory Endurance, but very hard to know how often I should take one.

  2. What do you think about using fat ?

    I switched from pure carbs to 80% nuts & almonds – works great for a 40km / +600m at 5 min/k or a full day in the mountains.

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